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Losses of Phytoplankton
  • Perennation is the formation of resting stages to survive unfavorable environmental conditions
  • Natural mortality: long time not considered, but can be substantial
  • Parasitism and viruses: can cause mass mortality of phytoplankton
  • Sedimentation: sinking of dead or unhealthy phytoplankton towards the bottom; major carbon nutrition for benthic animals, particularly in the deep sea; sedimentation rates highly size-dependent and variable over time/season